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कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्

Duality in Upanishad उपनिषद् में द्वैतवाद

नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो न मेधया न बहुनाश्रुतेन।
यमेवैष वृणुते लभ्यस्तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनुं स्वाम्‌॥
- कठोपनिषद् १.२.२३

शब्दार्थः
न = नहीं
अयम = यह
आत्मा = आत्मा या ब्रह्म (God or Brahman)
प्रवचनेन = प्रवचन से, शास्त्र-अध्ययन से
लभ्य = प्राप्त किया जाता है ।
न = नहीं
मेधया = बुद्धि द्वारा,
न = नहीं
बहुनाश्रुतेन = बहुत श्रवण करने से ।
यम्‌ एव एषः = जिस किसी को ही यह परमात्मा
वृणुते = वरण करता है, चुनता है, अधिकारी मानता है, मनोनीत करता है,
तेन लभ्यः = उसके द्वारा ही वह प्राप्त हो पाता है ।
तस्य = उसके लिए (for that Individual Soul)
एषः = यह
आत्मा = आत्मा या ब्रह्म (God or Brahman)
स्वाम्‌ = अपने
तनूम्‌ = स्वरूप को
विवृणुते = उद्घाटित – प्रकाशित कर देता है, उसके प्रति ही वह प्रकट होता है ।

This Atman (God) cannot be attained by mere discourses – by the study of the Vedas, or by intelligence, or by much hearing of the sacred books. It is attained by him alone whom It chooses. To such a one Atman (God) reveals Its own form.

इस उपनिषद् मन्त्र में मुख्य बात यह कही गई है कि ईश्वर साक्षात्कार के लिए साधक को अपनी योग्यता बनानी चाहिए । केवल योग्य व्यक्ति ही इस कार्य में सफल हो सकता है । शुद्ध ज्ञान, शुद्ध कर्म तथा शुद्ध उपासना सम्पन्न साधक को ईश्वर योग्य – अधिकारी समझ कर अपने अत्यन्त विचित्र, अलौकिक व परम कल्याणकारी स्वरूप का परिज्ञान = साक्षात्कार समाधि अवस्था में कराता है । केवल शाब्दिक ज्ञान, प्रवचन-कौशल, श्रवण, तर्क शक्ति इत्यादि से व्यक्ति ईश्वर साक्षात्कार नहीं कर पाता । ईश्वर की दृष्टि में हम योग्य बने तब ही सफलता मिलती है, अन्यथा नहीं । इस मन्त्र पर विचार करने से यह भी स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि उपनिषत्कार ईश्वर तथा जीव के भेद को भी मान्य करता है । जैसे कि –

(१) यहां ब्रह्म-प्राप्ति की बात की गई है । ब्रह्म को कौन प्राप्त करना चाह्ता है? – जीव । ब्रह्म स्वयं अपने को प्राप्त करना या अपना ही साक्षात्कार करना चाहता है - ऐसा कहना तो सर्वथा अनुचित है ।

(२) प्रवचन, श्रवण, मेधाशक्ति का प्रयोग – ये सब कर्म - क्रियाएं अल्पज्ञ जीव ही करता है, सर्वज्ञ ब्रह्म या ईश्वर नहीं ।

(३) ईश्वर या ब्रह्म अपना स्वरूप किसको प्रकाशित करता है? – जीव को ।

अतः यही सिद्धान्त ठीक है कि ईश्वर (ब्रह्म = परमात्मा) और जीव (=जीवात्मा) एक नहीं हैं, परन्तु पृथक्- पृथक् हैं । उपनिषद् अद्वैतवाद का समर्थन नहीं, बल्कि प्रकारांतर से खण्डन ही करता है ।

= भावेश मेरजा

अति सुन्दर

अति सुन्दर व सटीक प्रमाण‌ !
आनन्द‌

Sh. Bhavesh ji, This mantra

Sh. Bhavesh ji, This mantra gives a clear picture about darshan of Paramatma.Now question rises :
1) Is it worthwhile to spend whole life in studying Ved shastras!
2) Can we have darshan of Paramatma under guidance of guru!
3) Is it continuous worshiping of Parmatma(after various janamas) Atma gets opportunity to have darshan of Parmatma!
Aum
Ramesh

(i) Yes, Veda is revealed

(i) Yes, Veda is revealed knowledge. It is repository of all true knowledge. So its study is highly suggested and most advantageous.

(ii) Guru can definitely be helpful to certain range. Guru cannot make some one capable for God-realization straight away.

(iii) Once desired level of purification is achieved by the Soul, God offers him the highest reward of his efforts. This is the essential condition. In how many lives this goal is achieved depends on the intensity and effectiveness of the efforts put in by the devotee.

= Bhavesh Merja

It is just our

It is just our interpretation to conclude that upnishads including gita infer to dvaitvad . We know that all scriptures except Vedas are paurusheya therefore they teach the way knowing Brahman thru sakar and as agni, samudre twa nramna …yaj 20/12

Gita says in 4th shloka of 9th ch.

If we take veda then …tatsaviturvarenyam , Brahman as sun and jeevas as sun rays suits well . More the rays more powerful ATMA.

It is not true that only 4

It is not true that only 4 Vedas teach that God is formless. The fact is that besides Vedas - Upanishads, Darshan shastras and other true Vedic books teach the same thing i.e. God has no form. Idol worship is no where suggested in these Vedic books. One can refer old book of Manusmiri. It instructs for various spiritual practices like fire ritual (agnihotra)etc, but doesn't indicate any thing like Idol worship or so-called Saakaar upaasanaa.

In Gayatri mantra God has been explained. He is to be contemplated for illumination of our intellects.

= Bhavesh Merja

Namaste Merjaji Vedmantra

Namaste Merjaji
Vedmantra 25/23 yaj tells something diff if not understood properly . Similarly Dwa suparna sayuja sakhaya…tells of singular number hence , if jeeva and parmatma taken as two birds will lead to dvaita , so in my view one bird with two wings is more correct . gita can be referred as…
Evam buddheh param buddhwaa samstabhyaatmaanam aatmanaa;
Jahi shatrum mahaabaaho kaamaroopam duraasadam.
Thus, knowing Him who is superior to the intellect and restraining the self by the Self,
slay thou, O mighty-armed Arjuna, the enemy in the form of desire, hard to conquer!
Restrain the lower self by the higher Self. Subdue the lower mind by
the higher mind. It is difficult to conquer desire because it is of a highly complex and
incomprehensible nature. But a man of discrimination and dispassion, who does constant and
intense Sadhana, can conquer it quite easily.

My understanding is just offering ganga water to ganga , therefore pl don’t mind if I am wrong .

Pl allow me to go slightly

Pl allow me to go slightly out of context

I am often surprised, why the people talk of or refer to the religious books of their faith only ? Why don't they first use logic to find the Truth using their intellect? We must first be logical & try to understand as to what are the various possibilities available, only there after we should refer to the books of our faith to find the Truth If we are not satisfied with them, we should then refer to other books of other faiths or knowledge and continue the process till we are at least theoretically satisfied. Next we should or even simultaneously with the above process start putting the knowledge, so gained to test it practically for finding the ultimate Truth. If we don't do this way, we can never be sure about whether what we have gained is a real Truth or a falsehood in the garb of Truth.

By trying to realize the logic of life, we must first read our own mind as to how it is working. And for that Pranayam or regulation of Pranas and concentrating on it helps.
Further, ofcourse if we have a True knowledge available with us at the beginning of the above process the process of reaching the Truth is facilitated, though still we have to do all the hard work required to ultimately reach & realize the Truth.

So this also makes the importance of a true guru, for which great emphasis is made in our Shastras.

The basic Truth of this Brahmand is the first thing , which we must realize before trying to find the other things. If we have realized that, then it will become very easier to progress in the right direction. If we are unable to understand it to our entire satisfaction, we shouldn't proceed further, till we can logically reach to a certain conclusion or conclusions.

Now with the above background in mind we may think of how this Brahmand or Universe may be existing in reality ? We all know some thing about the minute particles of nature, which are responsible for making this visible world. (These are Sat Tam & Raj similar but not necessarily the same as neutron, proton & electron) These are so small & so far apart from each other that for making them visible, we must have the five type of senses ,which are provided to living beings, which in turn convert these basic particles moving at enormous speed in to a form or forms so that they can be used to convey the emotions of souls, using these particles of nature. In the absence of these five senses, what we may observe will be a hollow world full of enormous numbers of very fine particles with very big gaps in between and moving randomly at enormous speeds, to appear almost like a hollow space. Further we also know that beyond the physical things, there are our emotions which are the real cause of all the movements which living organisms are making, that make the most of this living world. So the existence of two things become very clear out of this above observations. These are the existence of Nature i.e., basic particles as discussed above) & the souls, the cause of Emotional world.

We can now proceed further & observe the existence of a very meticulously planned Universe in which all the activities of infinite particles of nature appear in perfect coordination with each other. Had not this coordination existed, the whole universe should have collapsed in no time. Hence we realize the existence of a very well planned & coordinated Universe. So if we logically think in this way, we realize that there exist simultaneously with the existence of infinite particles of Nature & the existence of infinite souls, a force which is responsible for meticulously planning, creating, administrating & running this vast Universe. To do this , the third entity must exist. And which should have an excess to the entire particles of this Universe, and this makes the existence of this third entity absolutely essential. This third entity is the one to which some refer to as God, some Allah, some as Bhagwan etc, etc. Now if this third entity is essential for a perfect Universe, then it should also be available at all the places i.e., it should be Omnipresent, if this has to carry out the construction , management of this Universe, it should have all the knowledge, and if this Universe has to be a place to achieve happiness, then this should also be a source of all the BLISS. Hence if we logically think, we realize the existence of three basic things, which are absolutely essential for this Creation to exist & this is the meaning of Three Basic things called as Nature, Souls & Parmatma (God).

Namaste Anandji That is a

Namaste Anandji
That is a good scientific explanation and it is good to follow science these days , but as we know that scientific achievements are based on assumptions in first hand and Vedas contains many such said achievements which are still beyond dreams of scientists .

Anyway let me tell that there is only one equation in science and that governs all and it is…..A ~B means A =B +K .This is exactly the same as you stated that the third entity is K which is Brahman and this K is the only truth which controls A AND B therefore nature and soul are not independent and are the part of Advaita K the Brahman , which is the root cause of Hiranyagarbh or so called big bang .
There is another explanation for soul and nature to be instable and dependent as souls vary from body to body and nature is inert without souls .
Kindly correct me where I am wrong .

Dear Gupta ji Namaste Its

Dear Gupta ji
Namaste
Its very interesting, the analogy between the scientific equation, A = B+K, and the God soul & nature, used by your good-self, to explain the divine element. However how far this satisfies the thirst of a seeker, I think depends on his own state of thinking. My request was to go only logically, before reading anything & then try to visualize the same thing to prove it practically. Unless we practically try to visualize and analyze the thoughts gathered by our mind, we can't be sure of arriving at any TRUTH.

Lets try to think about the Three Basics , again.

We all know, that we exist. We all know that each one is independent, not only humans but it includes all other creatures. None of the creature is ever ready to surrender before any one else (except as a temporary arrangement) Not even a child is ready to surrender before his mother, so how can any one deny the existence of souls ?
So soul has an existence, without an iota of doubt.

Next , lets take Nature. Every thing we feel, when we are awake or asleep, we find it comprises or is surrounded by two basic things, the thoughts & the things around which these thoughts revolve. Can we deny their existence ? No body can deny the existence of Thoughts or the things, though one may deny their characteristics. Hence the existence of Nature & the existence of souls is always verified at every moment. We never feel, throughout our life without being our self connected to other things. This self is the soul & these other things are the Nature for physical items, other souls for our Emotions & similarly the God for all our Happiness.

About the instability, you have mentioned in the last, may I say is due to our minute character due to which we cant apprehend this vast Universe. That's why the help of the one who has a reach to all is required and that's why we seek God & His knowledge.

Thanks with the hope to hear from you, so that we can proceed towards the path of knowledge.

Anand

Namaste Anandji and thanks

Namaste Anandji and thanks for encouraging me to continue .

I choose to take the reference of vedmantras ch. 40 yaj. Quoted by Dr. Vibhaji .

By knowledge or ignorance , by single or with many , why O man , you are entering to darkness of worldly enjoyments which are always left by Almighty parmatma and which are pervaded by him ? So don’t be a vulture . Know your soul which is Brahman itself .

The man of stable mind will have perfect control of the senses. The senses are powerful and
draw the mind outwards. One should therefore turn one’s gaze within and realise God who resides
in the heart. The Yogi, having achieved a stable mind, remains steadfast even though all
sense-objects come to him. He is unmoved and lives a life of eternal peace.

[A] is worldly affairs , [B] is ignorant soul and [K] the Kham Brahman in A=B+K equation .

Pl. comment .

Namaste Dear Gupta ji So

Namaste Dear Gupta ji
So nice of you to continue .

You have equated : worldly affairs (A) = ignorant soul (B) + Kham Brahman (K), in A=B+K equation

Can we can conclude the following from this equation.

(1) That the worldly affairs are the result of mixing of ignorant soul with Kham Brahman .

(2) There is no necessity of any other item as Nature to form the worldly affairs.

(3) If there is no ignorant soul i.e., if no ignorant soul exists, then there won't be any worldly affairs, but only the Kham Brahman will prevail.

Do you feel satisfied with this ? If the soul is Brahma itself, why, at all it should have become ignorant ? Had it not become ignorant, then there wont have existed any worldly affair. Was it, therefore intentionally/deliberately done to create the same ?

Like this there would be many a queries, which I don't think are possible to reply.

Further to all what is said above, can we believe in all this, while ignoring all that is lying infront of us as untruth ?
I am sure you would like to put your thought to it.

With hope to hear further
Anand

That is nice comment from

That is nice comment from you Anandji , pranam . See a small text of rama narda samvad from ramcharitmanas….
Seeing the Lord of Raghus so highly pleased, Narada spoke again in gentle tones.
. Listen, O Rama: when You impelled Your Maya (deluding potency) and infatuated me,
O Lord of Raghus, I wanted to marry. Why, then, did You not let me accomplish my
desire ?. . Listen, O sage: I tell you with all the emphasis at My command that I always
take care of those who worship Me with undivided faith, even as a mother tends her child.
If an infant child runs to catch hold of fire or a snake, the mother rescues it by drawing it
aside. When, however, her son has grown up she loves him no doubt, but not as before.
The wise are like My grown up sons, while humble devotees are like My infant children.
A devotee depends on Me, while the former ( a wise man) depends on his own strength;
and both have to face enemies like lust and anger. Pondering thus the prudent adore Me
and never take leave of devotion even after attaining wisdom.

Dear Gupta ji Namaste Your

Dear Gupta ji
Namaste
Your great devotional faith in the AllMighty is apparant from the above inputs. The undivided faith, without any doubt, is a MUST for reaching to Parmatma, But to achieve this Undivided faith one has to do a lot many things and this includes jyan, Tap & Karma. Unless the man puts all the efforts in his command to move ahead, God also don't help. I think you also agree with this. His kripa is achieved only by the one, who has done his 100% towards realizing HIM.
Dhanyawad.

Anand

This is just to show that

This is just to show that how my article placed on this web of Arya samaj is used by others on other web / blog on their own names! At least source and/or author's name should be given:

Pl click:

http://pragyan-vigyan.blogspot.com/2010/11/duality-in-upanishad.html

=Bhavesh Merja