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कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्

Karma system And Sattvik Rajasik and Tamasik nature of mind.

Sattvic, Rajasik & Tamasic - three-fold nature of the mind.

Mark, how Manu 12: 8, 9, 25, 33, 35-38. describes the manifold course of sin and virtue:-
"Let a man thus know this three-fold nature (of mind) - the highest, the mean, and the lowest degree - cultivate the disposition of the highest kind and reject the other two. Let him also bear in mind that the soul has a reward - happiness - or a punishment - pain and suffering - for his acts - mental through mind, verbal through its organs of speech, and corporeal through its physical body."

"For the corporeal sinful acts (such as theft, adultery and killing or injuring the good) a man shall assume a vegetable form; for verbal sinful acts, the form of a bird or an animal; and for sinful acts mostly mental, the lowest of human conditions."

"The quality that predominates in physical body renders the embodied soul eminently distinguished for that quality."

"The possession of true ideas by the soul is declared to be an indication of Sattva (Superior). Ignorance betokens Tamas (lowest). Passion of love and hatred signify Rajas (medium). These three attributes, i.e., Sattva, Rajas and Tamas of the Prakriti are to be found in all things."

"When a man feels that there is tranquility, peacefulness, and contentment in his mind and also his soul is pure as the purest light, let him know then that the Sattva predominates; whilst the Rajas and Tamas occupy a subordinate position."

"When the soul is unhappy, has no peace of mind, is restlessly engaged in the pursuit of sensual objects, let him then know that it is the Rajas that predominates, whilst the Sattva and Tamas are suppressed."

"When the soul and the manas - the principle of thought - are engaged in the headlong pursuit of worldly things, lose all sense of right and wrong, are thoroughly infatuated with sensual gratification and absolutely incapable of discussion a subject, and are extremely dull of understanding, let him understand that it is the Tamas that predominates in him."

"Now we shall describe at large, the various results in the highest, mean and lowest degrees that proceed from those three qualities."

"Study of the Veda - source of all true knowledge -, strict devotion to duty, the advancement of knowledge, the desire for purity - corporeal and spiritual, self-control, the practice of righteousness and Divine contemplation verily betoken Sattva."

"Spasmodic zeal, impatience, practice of unrighteous act, and habitual indulgence in sensual gratification are the signs of the
preponderance of Rajas and the comparative suppression of the Tamasand Sattva."

"Extreme covetousness - the root of all evils - extreme indolence, stupidity and sleepiness, discontents, cruelty, atheism, i.e., want of faith in God and the Veda, distraction of mind, want of mental concentration, and contraction of evil habits should be looked upon by a wise man as indications of Tamas. It is the Tamas, then, that predominates whilst the Rajas and Sattva are not markedly manifest."

"Besides, whenever a man's soul feels shame, doubt and fear in having done, in doing or in going to do an act, let him know that the Tamas greatly preponderates in him."

"When a man seeks great fame in this world, and does not cease giving money to flatters, flunkeys, and parasites: poor though he be, let him understand that the Rajas preponderates in him."

"When a man's soul thirsts after knowledge, not matter where it comes from, cultivates good qualities, feels no shame in doing good actions at which it greatly rejoices, in other words is always desirous of practicing righteousness, let him know then that the Sattva predominates."

"The craving for sensual gratification is an index of Tamas, the desire for the acquisition of worldly possession, or Rajas and the
practice of righteousness, of < b>. The last mentioned is superior to Rajas, and that in its turn is superior to Tamas. Now we shall describe the conditions that each of these qualities -Sattva, Rajas and Tamas - leads to:-

"Those endowed with Sattava attain to the state of the learned, godly men. Those, who are possessed of Rajas, become men, while those immersed in Tamas fall into the condition of lower orders."

"Vegetables (as trees), worms and insects, fish, snakes, tortoise, cattle, and deer, and like, are the forms which the lowest degree of Tamas leads to."

"Elephants, horses, extremely stupid and dull persons, men of dirty habits and uncouth speech and manners, ferocious animals, such as lions, wolves and boars, re the forms that proceed from the mean degree of Tamas."

"Flatterers,* beautiful birds, braggarts, cruel blood-thirsty men, and those who drink wine and other intoxicants habitually and are dirty in their habits, are the conditions which proceed from the highest degree of Tamas."

"Fencers (cudgel players, etc.), gardeners, sailors, acrobats, armed servants and those who are addicted to drinking and gambling result from the Rajas of the lowest degree."

"Rulers, men of the governing class (statesmen, soldiers, etc.), king's chaplains, controversialists, ambassadors, lawyers, judges,
_
*Those who make poetical compositions, etc., in praise of other in order to flatter them.

heads of the army and the like are occasioned by the Rajas of the medium degree."

"Singers, musicians, men of great wealth and resource, companions or associates of the great and good men of vast learning or those who wait upon them, and women of great beauty and physical charms are caused by the Rajas of the highest quality."

"Those who are strictly devoted to their duties, truth and righteousness, masters of their passions, altruistic teachers of humanity - Sanyaasis, teachers of the Veda, aeronauts, astronomers, physicians or hygienist, i.e., those who devote themselves to the science and art of the perfect development of the human body, proceed from the Sattva of the lowest degree."

"Philanthropists, seers of the Veda, godly learned men, great scholars of the Veda, professors of the science, of electricity, astronomy, geology, etc. (literally, the science of time), those who possess true knowledge and power which they use for the good of others, and great Teachers result from the Sattva of the medium degree.

"Masters of all four Vedas, masters of all the sciences and arts, who invent (or construct) air ships and such machines, those who are embodiments of righteousness and wisdom, those who acquire control over the elementary* result from the Sattva of the highest degree."

"The ignorant, the basest among men who indulge in their sensual appetites, renounce the practice of righteousness and the performance of their duties and lead sinful lives assume the basest forms and thereby suffer various afflictions."
*Literally atoms and first stage after their combination. -Tr.

Thus whatsoever act a man sows by virtue of the Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, the same shall he reap. Those who are emancipated are beyond the pale of these three qualities. Let every man, therefore, endeavor to become great yogi (altruistic teacher) by the practice of yoga, and employ himself in the pursuit of those means that lead to Emanicapation.

"Let a man restrain his mind from the doing of acts that proceed from Rajas and Tamas and thereafter even from those that result from Sattva, and become imbued with purity and such other good qualities."

" Let him then withdraw his mind from the senses, aim it at righteousness, and make it concentrate on God. This withdrawal of the mind from all things, and concentrating it on one point is called yoga."

"After the mind is withdrawn and concentrated, the soul is centered in God - the Seer of all - and finds rest in Him." YOGA I: 2, 3.

Let a man practice all the above described means of Emancipation and understand that
"Exemption from pain which is of three kinds - that from physical disorders, hunger and thirst, etc., that from other living beings and that from natural causes such as excessive heat or cold, or excessive or deficient rain, or from the restlessness of mind and the senses - and the consequent attainment of Emancipation is the highest work." SAANKHYA SHASTRA, 1:1